中国湿地水鸟

湿地鸟类是湿地野生动物中最具代表性的类群,是湿地生态系统的重要组成部分,灵敏和深刻地反映着湿地环境的变迁。

据统计,目前我国有湿地水鸟12目32科271种,其中属国家重点保护的水鸟有10目18科56种,属国家保护的有益或者有重要经济、科学研究价值的水鸟有10目25科195种。按居留型可分为夏候鸟、冬候鸟、留鸟和旅鸟4类,其中大部分是候鸟和旅鸟。在亚洲57种濒危鸟类中,中国湿地内就有31种,占54%;全世界鹤类有15种,中国有记录的就有9种,占60%;全世界雁鸭类有166种,中国湿地就有50种,占30%。

我国湿地水鸟的分布是与各地的气候、水文、植被等自然地理特点相适应的。北方处于寒温带和温带,种类以夏候鸟和旅鸟占优势;南方处于亚热带和热带,种类以冬候鸟和留鸟占优势。很多水鸟都是在北方繁殖,到南方越冬。

 

中国主要水鸟名录

序号中文名学名英文名
潜鸟目 GAVIIFORMES
潜鸟科 Gaviidae (4)
1红喉潜鸟 Gavia stellataRed-throated Diver
2太平洋潜鸟 Gavia pacificaPacific Diver
3黑喉潜鸟 Gavia arcticaBlack-throated Diver
4白嘴潜鸟 Gavia adamsiiWhite-billed Diver
目 PODICIPEDIFORMES
科 Podicipedidae (5)
5小 Tachybaptus ruficollisLittle Grebe
6角 Podiceps auritusHorned Grebe
7黑颈 Podiceps nigricollisBlack-necked Grebe
8凤头 Podiceps cristatusGreat CrestedGrebe
9赤颈 Podiceps grisegenaRed-necked Grebe
鹱形目 PROCELLARIIFORMES
信天翁科 Diomedeidae(2)
10短尾信天翁 Diomedea albatrusShort-tailedAlbatross
11黑脚信天翁 Diomedea nigripesBlack-footed Albatross
鹱科 Procellariidae(8)
12暴风鹱 Fulmarus glacialisPacific Fulmar
13白额鹱 Puffinus leucomelasWhite-frontedShearwater
14曳尾鹱 Puffinus pacificusWedge-tailed Shearwater
15灰鹱 Puffinus griseusGrey Shearwater
16短尾鹱 Puffinus tenuirostris Short-tailedShearwater
17钩嘴圆尾鹱 Pterodroma rostrataT ahiti Petrel
18点额圆尾鹱 Pterodroma hypoleucaBonin Petrel
19纯褐鹱 Bulweria bulwerii Bulwer's Petrel
海燕科 Hydrobatidae(2)
20白腰叉尾海燕 Oceanodroma leucorhoaFork-tailed Storm Petrel
21黑叉尾海燕 Oceanodroma monorhisSwinhoe's Storm Petrel
鹈形目 PELACANIFORMES
鸏科 Phaethontidae(3)
22短尾鸏 Phaethon aethereus Short-tailed Tropic-bird
23红尾鸏 Phaethon rubricaudaRed-tailed Tropic-bird
24白尾鸏 Phaethon lepturusLong-tailed Tropic-bird
鹈鹕科 Pelecanidae (2)
25白鹈鹕 Pelecanus onocrotalusEastern White Pelican
26斑嘴鹈鹕 Pelecanus philippensisSpot-billed Pelican
鲣鸟科 Sulidae(2)
27红脚鲣鸟 Sula sulaRed-footed Booby
28褐鲣鸟 Sula leucogasterBrown Booby
鸬鹚科 Phalacrocoracidae (5)
29[普通]鸬鹚 Phalacrocorax carboCommon Cormorant
30斑头(绿)鸬鹚Phalacrocorax capillatusTemminck's Cormorant
31海鸬鹚 Phalacrocorax pelagicusSea Cormorant
32红脸鸬鹚Phalacrocorax urile Red-faced Cormorant
33黑颈鸬鹚 Phalacrocorax nigerLittle Cormorant
军舰鸟科 Fregatidae(3)
34小军舰鸟 Fregata minorLesser Frigate Bird
35白腹军舰鸟 Fregata andrwsiChristmas Island Frigate Bird
36白斑军舰鸟 Fregata arielLeast Frigate Bird
鹳形目 CICONIIFORMES
鹭科 Ardeidae (21)
37苍鹭 Ardea cinereaGrey Heron
38草鹭 Ardea purpureaPurple Heron
39绿鹭Butorides striatusLittle Green Heron
40池鹭 Ardeola bacchusChinese Pond Heron
41牛背鹭 Bubulcus ibisCattle Egret
42白颈黑鹭 Egretta picataPied Heron
43大白鹭 Egretta albaLarge Egret
44白鹭 Egretta garzettaLittle Egret
45黄嘴白鹭 Egretta eulophotesChinese Egret
46岩鹭 Egretta sacraReef Heron
47中白鹭 Egretta intermediaIntermediate Egret
48夜鹭 Nycticorax nycticorax Black-crowned Night Heron
49栗头虎斑鳽 Gorsachius goisagiBrown Night Heron
50海南虎斑鳽 Gorsachius magnificusChinese Night Heron
51黑冠虎斑鳽 Gorsachius melanolophusMalay Night Heron
52小苇鳽 Ixobrychus minutusLittle Bittern
53黄苇鳽 Ixobrychus sinensisYellow Bittern
54紫背苇鳽 Ixobrychus eurhythmus Schrenck's Bittern
55栗苇鳽 Ixobrychus cinnamomeusCinnamon Bittern
56黑鳽 Ixobrychus flavicollisBlack Bittern
57大麻鳽 Botaurus stellarisGreat Bittern
鹳科 Ciconiidae (5)
58彩鹳 Mycteria leucocephalusPainted Stork
59白鹳 Ciconia ciconiaWhite Stork
60东方白鹳 Ciconia boycianaOriental White Stork
61黑鹳 Ciconia nigraBlack Stork
62秃鹳 Leptoptilos javanicus Lesser Adjutant Stork
鹮科 Threskiornithidae (6)
63[黑头]白鹮 Threskiornis melanocephalusWhite Ibis
64黑鹮 Pseudibis papillosaBlack Ibis
65朱鹮 Nipponia nipponCrested Ibis
66彩鹮 Plegadis falcinellaGlossy Ibis
67白琵鹭 Platalea leucorodiaWhite Spoonbill
68黑脸琵鹭 Platalea minor Black-faced Spoonbill
雁形目ANSERIFORMES
鸭科 Anatidae (47)
69黑雁 Branta berniclaBrant Goose
70红胸黑雁 Branta ruficollis Red-breasted Goose
71鸿雁 Anser cygnoidesSwan Goose
72豆雁 Anser fabalisBean Goose
73白额雁 Anser albifrons White-fronted Goose
74小白额雁 Anser erythropusLesser White-fronted Goose
75灰雁 Anser anserGreylag Goose
76斑头雁 Anser indicusBar-headed Goose
77雪雁 Anser caerulescensSnow Goose
78大天鹅 Cygnus cygnusWhooper Swan
79小天鹅 Cygnus columbianusWhistling Swan
80疣鼻天鹅 Cygnus olorMute Swan
81[栗]树鸭 Dendrocygna javanicaLesser Whistling Teal
82赤麻鸭 Tadorna ferrugineaRuddy Shelduck
83翘鼻麻鸭 Tadorna tadornaCommon Shelduck
84针尾鸭 Anas acutaPintail
85绿翅鸭 Anas creccaCommon Teal
86花脸鸭 Anas formosaBaikal Teal
87罗纹鸭 Anas falcataFalcated Teal
88绿头鸭 Anas platyrhynchosMallard
89斑嘴鸭 Anas poecilorhynchaSpotbill Duck
90赤膀鸭 Anas streperaGadwall
91赤颈鸭 Anas penelopeWigeon
92白眉鸭 Anas querquedulaGarganey
93琵嘴鸭 Anas clypeataShoveller
94云石斑鸭 Marmaronetta angustirostrisMarbled Teal
95赤嘴潜鸭 Netta rufina Red-crested Pochard
96帆背潜鸭 Aythya valisineriaCanvasback
97红头潜鸭 Aythya ferinaCommon Pochard
98白眼潜鸭 Aythya nyrocaWhite-eyed Pochard
99青头潜鸭 Aythya baeriBaer's Pochard
100凤头潜鸭 Aythya fuligulaTufted Duck
101斑背潜鸭 Aythya marilaScaup Duck
102鸳鸯 Aix galericulata Mandarin Duck
103棉凫 Nettapus coromandelianusCotton Teal
104瘤鸭 Sarkidiornis melanotosComb Duck
105小绒鸭 Polysticta stelleriSteller's Eider
106黑海番鸭 Melanitta nigraBlack Scoter
107斑脸海番鸭 Melanitta fuscaWhite-winged Scoter
108丑鸭 Histrionicus histrionicusHarlequin Duck
109长尾鸭 Clangula hyemalisLong-tailed Duck
110鹊鸭 Bucephala clangula Goldeneye
111白头硬尾鸭 Oxyura leucocephalaWhite-headed Duck
112斑头秋沙鸭 Mergus albellusSmew
113中华秋沙鸭 Mergus squamatusChinese Merganser
114红胸秋沙鸭 Mergus serrator Red-breastedMerganser
115普通秋沙鸭 Mergus merganserGoosander
隼形目FALCONIFORMES
鹰科Accipitridat(1)
116Pandion haliatus Osprey
鹤形目GRUIFORMES
鹤科Gruidae (9)
117灰鹤 Grus grusCommon Crane
118黑颈鹤 Grus nigricollisBlack-necked Crane
119白头鹤 Grus monachaHooded Crane
120沙丘鹤 Grus canadensis Shandhill Crane
121丹顶鹤 Grus japonensisRed-crowned Crane
122白枕鹤 Grus vipioWhite-naped Crane
123白鹤 GrusleucogeranusSiberian White Crane
124赤颈鹤 Grus antigoneSarus Crane
125蓑羽鹤 Anthropoides virgoDemoiselle Crane
秧鸡科Rallidae (19)
126普通秧鸡 Rallus aquaticusWater Rail
127蓝胸秧鸡 Rallus striatusBlue-breasted Banded Rail
128红腿斑秧鸡 Rallina fasciataRed-legged Crake
129白喉斑秧鸡 Rallina eurizonoidesBanded Crake
130长脚秧鸡 Crex crexCorn Crake
131白眉秧鸡 Porzana cinereaAshy Crake
132姬田鸡 Porzana parvaLittle Crake
133小田鸡 Porzana pusillaBaillon's Crake
134斑胸田鸡 Porzana porzanaSpotted Crake
135红胸田鸡 Porzana fuscaRuddy Crake
136斑胁田鸡 Porzana paykulliiBand-beilied Crake
137棕背田鸡 Porzana bicolorRufous-backed Crake
138花田鸡 Porzana exquisitaSwinhoe's Yellow Rail
139红脚苦恶鸟 Amaurornis akoolBrown Crake
140白胸苦恶鸟 Amaurornis phoenicurus White-breasted WaterHen
141董鸡 Gallicrex cinereaWater Cock
142黑水鸡 Gallinula chloropusMoorhen
143紫水鸡 Porphyrio porphyrioPurple Moorhen
144白骨顶 Fulica atraCoot
鸻形目 CHARADRIIFORMES
雉鸻科 Jacanidae (2)
145铜翅水雉 Metapidius indicus Bronge-winged Jacana
146水雉 Hydrophasianus chirurgus Pheasant-tailed Jacana
彩鹬科 Rostratulidae (1)
147彩鹬 Rostratula benghalensisPainted Snipe
蛎鹬科 Haematopodidae (1)
148蛎鹬 Haematopus ostralegusOystercatcher
鸻科 Charadriidae (15)
149凤头麦鸡 Vanellus vanellusLapwing
150灰头麦鸡 Vanellus cinereusGrey-headed Lapwing
151肉垂麦鸡 Vanellus indicus Red-wattledLapwing
152距翅麦鸡 Vanellus duvauceliiSpur-winged Lapwing
153灰斑鸻 Pluvialis squatarolaGrey Plover
154金[斑]鸻 Pluvialis dominicaEastern Golden Plover
155剑鸻 Charadrius hiaticulaRinged Plover
156长嘴剑鸻 Charadrius placidus Long-billed Ringed Plover
157金眶鸻 Charadrius dubiusLittle Ringed Plover
158环颈鸻 Charadrius alexandrinusKentish Plover
159蒙古沙鸻 Charadrius mongolusMongolian Plover
160铁嘴沙鸻 Charadrius leschenaultiiLarge Sand Plover
161红胸鸻 Charadrius asiaticusCaspian Plover
162东方鸻 Charadrius veredusEastern Sand Plover
163小嘴鸻 Eudromias morinellusDotterel
鹬科 Scolopacidae (48)
164小杓鹬 Numenius minutusLittle Whimbrel
165中杓鹬 Numenius phaeopus Whimbrel  
166白腰杓鹬 Numenius arquataCurlew
167红腰杓鹬 Numenius madagascariensis Red-rumped Curlew
168黑尾塍鹬 Limosa limosaBlack-tailed Godwit
169斑尾塍鹬 Limosa lapponicaBar-tailed Godwit
170红脚鹤鹬 Tringa erythropusSpotted Redshank
171红脚鹬 Tringa totanusRedshank
172泽鹬 Tringa stagnatilisMarsh Sandpiper
173青脚鹬 Tringa nebularia Greenshank
174白腰草鹬 Tringa ochropusGreen Sandpiper
175林鹬 Tringa glareolaWood Sandpiper
176小青脚鹬 Tring a guttifer Armstrong's Sandpiper
177小黄脚鹬 Tringa flavipesLesser Yellowlegs
178灰鹬 Tringa incanaGrey Sandpiper
179矶鹬 Tringa hypoleucosCommon Sandpiper
180灰尾漂鹬 Heteroscelus brevipesGrey-rumped Sandpiper
181漂鹬 Heteroscelus incanusGery Sandpiper
182翘嘴鹬 Xenus cinereusTerek Sandpiper
183翻石鹬 Arenaria interpres Turnstone
184长嘴鹬 Limnodromus scolopaceusLong-billed Dowitcher
185半蹼鹬 Limnodromus semipalmatusSnipe-billed Godwit
186孤沙锥 Gallinago solitariaSolitary Snipe
187澳南沙锥 Gallinago hardwickii Latham's Snipe
188林沙锥 Gallinago nemoricolaWood Snipe  
189针尾沙锥 Gallinago stenuraPintail Snipe
190大沙锥 Gallinago megalaSwinhoe's Snipe
191扇尾沙锥 Gallinago gallinagoFantail Snipe
192丘鹬 Scolopax rusticolaWoodcock
193姬鹬 Lymnocryptes minimusJack Snipe
194红腹滨鹬 Calidris canutusRed Knot
195大滨鹬 Calidris tenuirostrisGreat Knot
196红胸滨鹬 Calidris ruficollisRed-necked Stint
197西方滨鹬 Calidris mauriWestern Sandpiper
198长趾滨鹬 Calidris subminutaLong-toed Stint
199小滨鹬 Calidris minutaLittle Stint
200乌脚滨鹬 Calidris temminckiiTemminck's Stint
201尖尾滨鹬 Calidris acuminataSharp-tailed Stint
202岩滨鹬 Calidris ptilocnemisRock Sand-piper
203黑腹滨鹬 Calidris alpinaDunlin
204弯嘴滨鹬 Calidris ferrugineaCurlew Stint
205斑胸滨鹬 Calidris melanotosPectoral Sandpiper
206三趾滨鹬 Crocethia alba Sanderling
207勺嘴鹬 Eurynorhynchus pygmeusSpoon-billedSandpiper
208阔嘴鹬 Limicola falcinellusBroad-billed Sandpiper
209高跷鹬 Micropalama himantopusStilt Sandpiper
210黄胸鹬 Tryngites subruficillisBuff-breastedSandpiper
211流苏鹬 Philomachus pugnaxRuff
反嘴鹬科 Recurvirostridae (3)  
212鹮嘴鹬 Ibidorhyncha struthersiiIbis-bill
213黑翅长脚鹬 Himantopus himantopus Black-winged Stint
214反嘴鹬 Recurvirostra avosettaPied Avocet
瓣蹼鹬科Phalaropodidae (2)
215红颈瓣蹼鹬 Phalaropus lobatusRed-necked Phalarope
216灰瓣蹼鹬 Phalaropus fulicariusGrey Phalarope
石鸻科Burhinidae (2)
217大石鸻 Esacus magnirostrisGreat Stone Plover
218石鸻 Burhinus oedicnemusStone Curlew
燕鸻科 Glareolidae (2)
219普通燕鸻 Glareola maldivarumOriental Pratincole
220灰燕鸻 Glareola lacteaSmall Pratincole
鸥形目LARIFORMES
贼鸥科 Stercorariidae (4)
221中贼鸥 Stercorarius pomarinusPomatorhine Skua
222大贼鸥 Catharacta skuaGreat Skua
223短尾贼鸥 Stercorarius parasiticusShort-tailed Skua
224长尾贼鸥 Stercorarius longicaudusLong-tailed Skua
鸥科 Laridae (33)
225黑尾鸥 Larus crassirostrisBlack-tailed Gull
226海鸥 Larus canusCommon Gull
227银鸥 Larus argentatusHerring Gull
228灰背鸥 Larus schistisagusSlaty-backed Gull
229灰翅鸥 Larus glaucescens Glaucous-winged Gull
230北极鸥 Larus hyperboreusGlaucous Gull
231渔鸥 Larus ichthyaetusGreat Black-headed Gull
232遗鸥 Larus relictusRelict Gull
233红嘴鸥 Larus ridibundus Black-headed Gull
234棕头鸥 Larus brunnicephalusBrown-headed Gull
235细嘴鸥 Larus geneiSlender-billed Gull
236小鸥Larus minutus Little Gull
237黑嘴鸥 Larus saundersiSaunder's Gull
238三趾鸥 Rissa tridactylaBlacked-leggedKittiwake
239楔尾鸥 Rhodostethia roseaWedge-tailed Gull
240须浮鸥 Chlidonias hybrida Whiskered Tern
241白翅浮鸥 Chlidonias leucopteraWhite-winged Black Tern
242黑浮鸥 Chlidonias nigerBlack Tern
243鸥嘴噪鸥 Gelochelidon niloticaGull-billed Tern
244红嘴巨鸥 Hydroprogne caspiaCaspian Tern
245黄嘴河燕鸥 Sterna aurantiaRiver Tern
246普通燕鸥 Sterna hirundo Common Tern
247粉红燕鸥 Sterna dougalliiRoseate Tern
248黑枕燕鸥 Sterna sumatrana Black-naped Tern
249黑腹燕鸥 Sterna melanogasterBlack-bellied Tern
250褐翅燕鸥 Sterna anaethetusBrown-winged Tern
251乌燕鸥 Sterna fuscataSooty Tern
252白额燕鸥 Sterna albifrons Little Tern
253大凤头燕鸥 Thalasseus bergiiLarge Crested Tern
254小凤头燕鸥 Thalasseus bengalensisLittle Crested Tern
255黑嘴端凤头燕鸥 Thalasseus bernsteiniChinese Lesser Crested Tern
256白顶黑燕鸥 Anous stolidusCommon Noddy
257白燕鸥 Gygis albaWhite Tern
剪嘴鸥科Rynchopidae (1)
258剪嘴鸥 Rhynchops albicollisIndian Skimmer
海雀科Alcidae(4)
259扁嘴海雀 Synthiboramphus antiquus Ancient Murrelet
260斑海雀 Brachyramphus marmoratusMarbled Murrelet
261角嘴海雀 Cerorhinca monocerataHornbilled Auklet
262冠海雀 Synthliboraphus antiqusCrested Murrelet
鴞形目STRIGIFORMES
鸱鴞科 Strigidae(3)
263毛腿渔鴞 Ketupa blakistoniBlackiston's Fish Owl
264褐渔鴞 Ketupa zeylonensisBrown Fish Owl
265黄脚渔鴞 Ketupa flavipesTawny Fish Owl
佛法僧目CORACIIFORMES
翠鸟科 Aleedinidae(6)
266冠鱼狗 Ceryle lugubrusCrested PiedKingfisher
267斑鱼狗 Ceryle rudisLesser Pied Kingfisher
268普通翠鸟 Alcedo atthisCommon Kingfisher
269赤翡翠 Halcyon coromandaRuddy Kingfisher
270白胸翡翠 Halcyon smyrnensisWhite-breasted Kingfisher
271篮翡翠 Halcyon pileataBlack-capped Kingfisher